Linnea A Zimmerman, Mengmeng Li, Caroline Moreau, Siswanto Agus Wilopo, Robert Blum

Measuring agency as a dimension of empowerment among young adolescents globally; findings from the Global Early Adolescent Study

The concept of empowerment and its links to health and well-being have gained visibility in recent years. This is reflected in the adoption of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal 5 which aims to achieve gender equality and empowerment of women and girls by 2030 and global initiatives aiming to improve health and economic outcomes for women and girls worldwide through programs such as Women Deliver and Every Woman, Every Child. Cultivating empowerment and providing an enabling environment in which it can be exercised is particularly relevant for adolescents. In some contexts, entry into adolescence may be met with increasing freedom of movement and social interactions, while in others, adolescence may generate new social expectations and restrictions (Hallman et al., 2015; Mmari et al., 2018).